The internationally oriented research programme "Managing dangerous situations" is headed by dr. Otto M.J. Adang of the Police Academy of the Netherlands and focuses on the the interaction between police and civilians in a variety of potentially dangerous conflict situations. It includes research on use-of -force issues (e.g. the use of fire-arms and pepper spray), football hooliganism, crisis communication and hostage negotiation, riots, public order management and crowd management. The research programme analyses how individuals regulate their position in cooperation and in competition with others by means of their communicative and interactive behaviours. The aim of the research programme is to gain insight into the regulation of conflicts and social tension and to contribute to a better management of potentially dangerous situations. So far, most of the research has been done on the Dutch police and on policing practices within Europe.

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Research on public order policing during Euro 2004 in Portugal. Funded by ESRC, Cooperation with dr. Clifford Stott, Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool (2003 - 2005)
When hooligans lose their bottle
Evaluation of public order policing during Euro 2004

Focus on hooligans: intelligence-led policing in practice Police Gelderland-Midden (the Netherlands) has developed a methodology to get to know risk-groups and risk-individuals within groups. On the basis of this information a targeted approach was developed. The characteristics and merits of this approach are being studied. Implementation of the methodology in two other police forces will serve as a test to establish whether or not this approach can be considered "good practice". Cooperation with Dr. Henk Ferwerda, Advies- en Onderzoekgroep Beke, Arnhem, the Netherlands (2004 - 2007)

Dealing with conflict situations: looking for good practices Through observations, interviews, expert-meetings and analysis of written protocols, policing of mentally disturbed individuals, groups of migrants and entertainment districts will be studied in search of good practices. Cooperation with Dr. Henk Ferwerda, Advies- en Onderzoekgroep Beke, Arnhem, the Netherlands (2005 - 2006)

Police use of force: a transnational research project on the normative frameworks for police use of force
Different normative frameworks for the use of force represent an interesting and important topic for study. They are of interest because the normative frameworks for the use of force reflect potentially different conceptions of policing and may reveal important social and cultural variations in perceptions of police work. They are important because varied normative frameworks for the use of force pose challenges for international human rights initiatives that would seek to standardize the justified uses of force by the police (2004 - 2008). More info on police use of force website

Evaluation of the introduction of pepperspray in Dutch police forces In 2001- 2002, pepper spray was introduced as a new weapon for all Dutch police forces after street trials had been conducted in a limited number of forces. The use of pepper spray was monitored and evaluated on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior over a period of three years after introduction and was aimed at gaining insight into the consequences of the introduction of the spray and into any changes in the use of force by police and violence used against the police (2001 - 2004)
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A European study of crowd police relations was concerned with analysing, developing and enhancing strategies of, and cross-national cooperation within, public order policing in European Union (Candidate) Member States. The objectives of the research are to:
1.Advance understanding of the assessment of risk to public order posed by crowd events. More specifically it seeks to understand the factors that promote or impede non-violent behaviour amongst crowd participants and how these interact with police behaviour.
2.Examine how different national police forces approach crowd policing and how that affects their ability to coordinate with other police forces.
3.Examine how different police strategies in different (Candidate) EU Member States affect more general levels of aggression among crowd members and the subsequent affect on levels of harmony/conflict between crowds and police.
Funded by: Home Office (UK), Ministry of the Interior (the Netherlands), cooperation with: Dr. Clifford Stott, Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool (2001 -2003)

The introduction of pepper spray (OC) in the Dutch police Starting July 3, 2000, approx. 3000 police officers in four police forces were equipped with (natural) pepperspray for a trial period of three to five months. The street trials were scientifically evaluated to answer the question whether pepperspray is a safe and adequate use-of-force option for the Dutch police and under what conditions (guidelines, training, supervision, aftercare) pepperspray can be made available to all officers in the Netherlands. (1999 - 2001)

Policing Euro 2000: international police cooperation, information management and police deployment. The European footballchampionships 2000 held in Belgium and the Netherlands were characterised by an unprecedented level of international police cooperation. (1999 - 2000)

Evaluating public order management: a model The evaluation of large-scale police operations is often restricted to instances of severe disorder and hampered by the tension between looking for faults and drawing lessons for the future. A model is presented that was succesfully applied during the Euro 2000 footballchampionships. The formation of police evaluation teams and communities of practice is recommended. (1993 - 2000)

Football hooliganism: a report for the Council of Europe (1999)
European perspective on football hooliganism: background report
Preparing for Euro 2000: background report

First European conference on hostage negotiations was held in 1998 in Doorwerth, the Netherlands, with financial support from the European Union

Training police officers to manage dangerous situations: a new approach Police officers often bring themselves into a situation where they get hurt or the only option left open to them is the use of force. There are better ways to manage potentially dangerous situations. (1998)

Hooligans, rioters, officers: observing riots Systematic observations of public order policing (1986 - 1998)

About Otto Adang
Bibliography of English language publications by Otto Adang with links to texts
Two abstracts: Young men in groups? (2000) and Football Hooligans (1999)
Send Otto Adang a message
Homepage of Otto Adang, including complete bibliography
New and forthcoming publications, presentations and media appearances

About the Dutch police
Background information about the Dutch police