Cooperation on crowd research
between Police Academy of the Netherlands (Otto Adang)
School of Psychology, University of Liverpool (Clifford Stott)

Since 2001 we have been funded by the UK Home Office’s ‘Football Disorder’ section on a project entitled “A European study of the interaction between police and crowds of foreign nationals considered to pose a risk to public order”. As an expression of our cooperation, in 2004 Otto Adang was made a visiting professor at the University of Liverpool with the support of the Police Academy of the Netherlands.
Our research involves extensive observational studies of how police forces across Europe respond to the policing of ‘high risk’ fans. The objective of this research is to develop models of policing ‘good practice’ and to understand the processes through which different police strategic and tactical responses contribute to the maintenance of ‘public order’. The findings from our research have had important impacts. A detailed summary of some of the first research findings from this project can be found in our paper:

Stott, C. J. & Adang, O. (2003) Policing Football in the European Union: understanding and managing risk at football matches with an international dimension. Report to the Public Security Police. Portugal.
(Available here as pdf-file)

Euro 2004
As a direct result of our collaborative research both Clifford Stott and I were consultants to the Polícia de Segurança Pública (Portuguese Public Security Police - PSP) in the development of their use of force strategy for the 2004 European Championships (Euro2004). We gave a series of presentations to the PSP to assist in their strategy development from 2001 onwards. An overview of our recommendations to the PSP are available in the presentation and an accompanying paper we presented to a CEPOL (the European Police Training College) course in September 2003 and at the Strategy Conference for Euro2004 PSP Commanders in December 2003. Both were held at the PSP National Training Institute the Instituto Superior de Ciências Policiais e Segurança Interna, Lisbon, Portugal and attended by those officers involved in developing the strategy for the tournament.

Stott, C. J. & Adang, O.M.J. (2003a) Policing Football in the European Union: understanding and managing risk. CEPOL (European Police Training College) Conference, Instituto superior de ciências policiais e segurança interna, Lisbon, 16th-19th September. (pdf-file here)
Stott, C.J. & Adang, O.M.J. (2003b) Crowd psychology and public order policing. Paper presented to PSP conference, Instituto superior de ciências policiais e segurança interna, Lisbon (Portugal), December 19th.
Accompanying paper to Stott, C.J. & Adang, O.M.J. (2003b). (pdf-file here)
An outline of our work with the PSP is also provided in the following article:
Stott, C. J. & Adang, O.M.J. (2004) ‘Disorderly’ conduct: social psychology and the control of football ‘hooliganism’ at ‘Euro2004’. The Psychologist, June, p 318-319. (pdf-file here)

Both Clifford Stott and I were also invited by the PSP to conduct an evaluation of the Police strategy for Euro2004 by conducting observations of the policing of three high risk football matches in February, 2004. Our report was then made available to the PSP in April, 2004 and was the first empirical indication that we had of the potential differences that would occur between PSP and GNR controlled areas.

Adang, O.M.J. & Stott, C.J. (2004) Preparing for Euro 2004: Policing international football matches in Portugal. A report for the Portuguese Public Security Police. (pdf-file here)
As a consequence of the research infra-structure established through the Home Office funding we also secured funding in April 2004 from the Economic and Social Research Council to conduct a major research project on the policing of Euro2004 (RES-000-23-0617). Thus, we were in a position not only to advise the PSP but also to evaluate the implementation and consequences of police strategy and action. Moreover, given that Portugal’s second major police force, the Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR), adopted a different policy we were also able to compare the impacts of different approaches. The first of our scientific papers arising from this project was published in the European Journal of Social Psychology in 2006.
A brief summary of our preliminary findings from the project is available in the official ESRC research report document:
Stott, C.J & Adang, O.M.J. (2005) Crowd dynamics, policing and ‘hooliganism’ at ‘Euro2004’. Research Report for the Economic and Social Research Council. Grant reference: RES-000-23-0617

The Euro 2004 findings have been published in the following papers
Stott, C.J., Adang, O.M., Livingstone, A., & Schreiber, M. (2008) Tackling football hooliganism: a quantitative study of public order, policing and crowd psychology. Psychology Public Policy and Law, 52, 2, p 111-138.

Stott, C., O.M.J. Adang, A. Livingstone & M. Schreiber (2007) Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: Intergroup relations, identity content and social change. European Journal of social psychology, Volume 37, Issue 1 , Pages 75 – 100

We have also presented the findings of this project to the PSP Euro2004 debrief, Lisbon, January 2005:
Stott, C.J., Adang, O. & Schreiber, M (2005) Crowd psychology and public order policing at Euro2004. Presentation to Euro2004 debrief for senior commanders. Instituto superior de ciências policiais e segurança interna, Lisbon, January. (pdf-file here)

This is also accompanied by a paper that was presented by Martina Schreiber on the policing of the Netherlands versus Germany match in Oporto.
Schreiber, M., Stott, C.J. & Adang, O (2005) “Lucky Portuguese?” Low profile policing at Euro2004. Presentation to Euro2004 debrief for senior commanders. Instituto superior de ciências policiais e segurança interna, Lisbon, January. (pdf-file here)
Further impacts of research
On the 20th April, 2005 two proposals based upon this and a wider body of research were put forward by the Netherlands delegation and accepted by the Police Cooperation Working Party of the Council of the European Union as addendums to the European Union Handbook on International Police Cooperation and Measures to Prevent and Control Violence and Disturbances in Connection with Football Matches with an International Dimension.
The first policy was a model of ‘Dynamic risk assessment in the context of international football matches’ (8241/05). The second policy was focused upon ‘Police tactical performance for public order management in connection with international football matches’ (8243/05). Both policies draw directly from our work on policing football and sets of principles as published in:
Adang (1998) Hooligans, autonomen, agenten. Samsom, Alphen aan den Rijn, and
Reicher, S., Stott, C., Cronin, P. & Adang, O. (2004) An Integrated Approach to Crowd Psychology and Public Order Policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management. 27, 558-572

Research program Managing dangerous situations